Deflection of light rays in a moving medium around a spherically symmetric gravitating object
 authored by
 Barbora Bezděková, Oleg Yu Tsupko, Christian Pfeifer
 Abstract
In most analytical studies of light ray propagation in curved spacetimes around a gravitating object surrounded by a medium, it is assumed that the medium is a cold nonmagnetized plasma. The distinctive feature of this environment is that the equations of motion of the rays are independent of the plasma velocity, which, however, is not the case in other media. In this paper, we consider the deflection of light rays propagating near a spherically symmetric gravitating object in a moving dispersive medium given by a general refractive index. The deflection is studied when the motion of the medium is defined either as a radially falling onto a gravitating object (e.g., black hole), or rotating in the equatorial plane. For both cases the deflection angles are obtained. These examples demonstrate that fully analytic expressions can be obtained if the Hamiltonian for the rays takes a rather general form as a polynomial in a given momentum component. The general expressions are further applied to three specific choices of refractive indices, and these cases are compared. Furthermore, the light rays propagating around a gravitating object surrounded by a generally moving medium are further studied as a small perturbation of the cold plasma model. The deflection angle formula is hence expressed as a sum of zeroth and first order components, where the zeroth order term corresponds to the known cold plasma case, and the first order correction can be interpreted as caused by small difference in the refractive index compared to the cold plasma. The results presented in this paper allow to describe the effects caused by the motion of a medium and thus go beyond cold nonmagnetized plasma model.
 External Organisation(s)

Charles University
Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM)
University of Bremen
 Type
 Article
 Journal
 Physical Review D
 Volume
 109
 ISSN
 24700010
 Publication date
 10.06.2024
 Publication status
 Published
 Peer reviewed
 Yes
 ASJC Scopus subject areas
 Nuclear and High Energy Physics
 Electronic version(s)

https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.109.124024 (Access:
Open)