ForschungTopical Groups
Quantum electrical standards

Quantum electrical standards

Develop novel and improved quantum electrical standards for electrical current, electrical resistance, and voltage.


  • Develop novel and improved quantum electrical standards for electrical current, electrical resistance, and voltage: improved single electron pumps, novel quantum Hall materials and advanced Josephson circuits
  • Support collaboration on new materials for standards (e.g. Graphene), measurement techniques and capabilities (i.e. nanomagnetism measurements to study topology or quantum calibrated AFM);
  • Utilize the improved uncertainties to validate the foundations of electrical quantum metrology; 
  • Realize the most precise measurement to date of the quantum metrology triangle;
  • Contribute to the CRC Quantum Precision


Brange F, Schmidt A, Bayer JC, Wagner T, Flindt C, Haug RJ. Controlled emission time statistics of a dynamic single-electron transistor. Science advances. 2021 Jan 6;7(2). eabe0793. doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe0793

Buonacorsi B, Sfigakis F, Shetty A, Tam MC, Kim HS, Harrigan SR et al. Non-adiabatic single-electron pumps in a dopant-free GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG. Applied physics letters. 2021 Sep 13;119(11). 114001. doi.org/10.1063/5.0062486

Reifert D, Kokainis M, Ambainis A, Kashcheyevs V, Ubbelohde N. A random-walk benchmark for single-electron circuits. Nature Communications. 2021 Dez;12(1). 285. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20554-w

Wundrack S, Momeni D, Dempwolf W, Schmidt N, Pierz K, Michaliszyn L et al. Liquid metal intercalation of epitaxial graphene: Large-area gallenene layer fabrication through gallium self-propagation at ambient conditions. Physical Review Materials. 2021 Feb;5(2). 024006. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.5.024006

De Beule C, Dominguez F, Recher P. Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations in Minimally Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Physical review letters. 2020 Aug 28;125(9). 096402. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.096402

De Beule C, Silvestrov PG, Liu MH, Recher P. Valley splitter and transverse valley focusing in twisted bilayer graphene. Physical Review Research. 2020 Okt 28;2(4). 043151. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.043151

Freise L, Gerster T, Reifert D, Weimann T, Pierz K, Hohls F et al. Trapping and Counting Ballistic Nonequilibrium Electrons. Physical review letters. 2020 Mär 27;124(12). 127701. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.127701

Frombach D, Recher P. Quasiparticle poisoning effects on the dynamics of topological Josephson junctions. Physical Review B. 2020 Mär 15;101(11). 115304. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.101.115304

Hussein R, Kohler S, Bayer JC, Wagner T, Haug RJ. Spectral Properties of Stochastic Resonance in Quantum Transport. Physical review letters. 2020 Nov 10;125(20). 206801. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.206801

Momeni Pakdehi D, Schädlich P, Nguyen TTN, Zakharov AA, Wundrack S, Najafidehaghani E et al. Silicon Carbide Stacking-Order-Induced Doping Variation in Epitaxial Graphene. Advanced functional materials. 2020 Nov 1;30(45). 2004695. doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202004695

Novik EG, Trauzettel B, Recher P. Transport signatures of a junction between a quantum spin Hall system and a chiral topological superconductor. Physical Review B. 2020 Jun 15;101(23). 235308. doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.101.235308

Yang J, Nawrath C, Keil R, Joos R, Zhang X, Höfer B et al. Quantum dot-based broadband optical antenna for efficient extraction of single photons in the telecom O-band. Optics express. 2020 Jun 22;28(13):19457-19468. doi.org/10.1364/OE.395367

Beck M, Abrosimov NV, Hübner J, Oestreich M. Impact of optically induced carriers on the spin relaxation of localized electron spins in isotopically enriched silicon. Physical Review B. 2019 Jun 3;99(24). 245201. doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.99.245201

Elenskiy I, Tollkuhn M, Kajevic D, Martens M, Hampel B, Schilling M. Fabrication and Properties of Josephson Junction Cantilevers for Terahertz Applications. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 2019 Aug;29(5). 8644010. doi.org/10.1109/tasc.2019.2900217

Fatahilah MF, Strempel K, Yu F, Vodapally S, Waag A, Wasisto HS. 3D GaN nanoarchitecture for field-effect transistors. Micro and Nano Engineering. 2019 Mai;3:59-81. doi.org/10.1016/j.mne.2019.04.001

Fatahilah MF, Yu F, Strempel K, Römer F, Maradan D, Meneghini M et al. Top-down GaN nanowire transistors with nearly zero gate hysteresis for parallel vertical electronics. Scientific reports. 2019 Dez 1;9(1). 10301. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46186-9

Hampel B, Tollkuhn M, Elenskiy I, Martens M, Kajevic D, Schilling M. Josephson cantilevers for THz microscopy of additive manufactured diffractive optical components. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 2019 Jan 30;29(5). 8630090. doi.org/10.1109/tasc.2019.2896153

Wasisto HS, Prades JD, Gülink J, Waag A. Beyond solid-state lighting: Miniaturization, hybrid integration, and applications of GaN nano-and micro-LEDs. Applied physics reviews. 2019 Dez 1;6(4). Y. doi.org/10.1063/1.5096322

Involved QF Members
Members Institution Relevant Expertise
Hans Werner Schumacher, LeaderPTBMacroscopic Quantum Standards; Precision current metrology of single electron pumps; NV-centre-based magnetometry
Thomas GersterPTBMacroscopic Quantum Standards
David ReifertPTBMacroscopic Quantum Standards
Patrik RecherTUBSTheory of Emergent Correlated Quantum Matter; Josephson Junctions; Twisted Bilayer Graphene; Twisted-bilayer-graphene physics in ultracold atoms in optical potentials
Peter SilvestrovTUBSTwisted Bilayer Graphene
Rolf HaugLUHTwo-dimensional materials, Electrical Quantum Effects, Magnetic Quantum Effects
Michael OestreichLUHSpin and charge dynamics of single carriers in single semiconductor quantum dots
Lina BockhornLUHElectrical Quantum Effects
N.N.LUHTwo-Dimensional Materials
Meinhard SchillingTUBSElectronic Quantum Metrology; Optical Voltage Standard - Fast Prototyping and HTS Superconductors
Marco TollkühnTUBSOptical Voltage Standard - HTS Superconductors
Ilya ElenskiyTUBSOptical Voltage Standard – Fast Prototyping
Hansjörg SchererPTBAnomolous Quantum Hall Effect with Topological Materials
Frank HohlsPTBLow-Dimensional Electron Systems
Claus LämmerzahlZARMQuantum Sensors in Free Fall; Relativistic Geodesy; Quantum Objects in Gravity
Franziska WeickertPTBNMR, magnetic measurements, quantum magnetism