Quantum Electrical Standards

Quantum Electrical Standards

Develop novel and improved quantum electrical standards for electrical current, electrical resistance, and voltage.

Contributions to QuantumFrontiers

  • Support collaboration on new materials for standards (e.g. Graphene), measurement techniques and capabilities (i.e. nanomagnetism measurements to study topology or quantum calibrated AFM).
  • Development and optimization of semiconductor based single electron pumps for quantized current generation.
  • Studies of single electron transport and transport statistics using single electron detectors. Studies of single electron quantum optics in semiconductor systems and theory of mesoscopic and single electron transport.
  • Development of electrical precision measurement setups for the traceable measurement of ultra low currents and resistance quantization with ultimately low uncertainty.
  • Development of high temperature superconductor circuits for high frequency Josephson devices.
  • Utilize the improved uncertainties to validate the foundations of electrical quantum metrology by realizing the most precise measurement to date of the quantum metrology triangle.

Collaborative Innovations

  • Theory development for single electron quantum optics of single electron quantum optics (e.g.: Hong Ou Mandel) experiments (Recher  TUBS, Schumacher, Hohls PTB)
  • Joint characterization of twisted layer graphene stacks by transport and optics (Recher TUBS, Schumacher PTB)
  • Joint characterization of GaN two-dimensional electron gases for quantum metrology (Recher TUBS, Schumacher PTB)

Scientific Output

  • Publications

    Tollkühn M, Ritter PJ, Schilling M, Hampel B. THz microscope for three-dimensional imaging with superconducting Josephson junctions. Review of scientific instruments. 2022 Apr 20;93(4). 043708.

    Brange F, Schmidt A, Bayer JC, Wagner T, Flindt C, Haug RJ. Controlled emission time statistics of a dynamic single-electron transistor. Science advances. 2021 Jan 6;7(2). eabe0793.

    Buonacorsi B, Sfigakis F, Shetty A, Tam MC, Kim HS, Harrigan SR et al. Non-adiabatic single-electron pumps in a dopant-free GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG. Applied physics letters. 2021 Sep 13;119(11). 114001.

    Reifert D, Kokainis M, Ambainis A, Kashcheyevs V, Ubbelohde N. A random-walk benchmark for single-electron circuits. Nature Communications. 2021 Dec;12(1). 285.

    Wundrack S, Momeni D, Dempwolf W, Schmidt N, Pierz K, Michaliszyn L et al. Liquid metal intercalation of epitaxial graphene: Large-area gallenene layer fabrication through gallium self-propagation at ambient conditions. Physical Review Materials. 2021 Feb;5(2). 024006.

    De Beule C, Dominguez F, Recher P. Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations in Minimally Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Physical review letters. 2020 Aug 28;125(9). 096402.

    De Beule C, Silvestrov PG, Liu MH, Recher P. Valley splitter and transverse valley focusing in twisted bilayer graphene. Physical Review Research. 2020 Oct 28;2(4). 043151.

    Freise L, Gerster T, Reifert D, Weimann T, Pierz K, Hohls F et al. Trapping and Counting Ballistic Nonequilibrium Electrons. Physical review letters. 2020 Mar 27;124(12). 127701.

    Frombach D, Recher P. Quasiparticle poisoning effects on the dynamics of topological Josephson junctions. Physical Review B. 2020 Mar 15;101(11). 115304.

    Hussein R, Kohler S, Bayer JC, Wagner T, Haug RJ. Spectral Properties of Stochastic Resonance in Quantum Transport. Physical review letters. 2020 Nov 10;125(20). 206801.


    Momeni Pakdehi D, Schädlich P, Nguyen TTN, Zakharov AA, Wundrack S, Najafidehaghani E et al. Silicon Carbide Stacking-Order-Induced Doping Variation in Epitaxial Graphene. Advanced functional materials. 2020 Nov 4;30(45). 2004695.

    Novik EG, Trauzettel B, Recher P. Transport signatures of a junction between a quantum spin Hall system and a chiral topological superconductor. Physical Review B. 2020 Jun 15;101(23). 235308.

    Yang J, Nawrath C, Keil R, Joos R, Zhang X, Höfer B et al. Quantum dot-based broadband optical antenna for efficient extraction of single photons in the telecom O-band. Optics express. 2020 Jun 22;28(13):19457-19468.

    Beck M, Abrosimov NV, Hübner J, Oestreich M. Impact of optically induced carriers on the spin relaxation of localized electron spins in isotopically enriched silicon. Physical Review B. 2019 Jun 3;99(24). 245201.

    Elenskiy I, Tollkuhn M, Kajevic D, Martens M, Hampel B, Schilling M. Fabrication and Properties of Josephson Junction Cantilevers for Terahertz Applications. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 2019 Aug;29(5). 8644010.

    Fatahilah MF, Strempel K, Yu F, Vodapally S, Waag A, Wasisto HS. 3D GaN nanoarchitecture for field-effect transistors. Micro and Nano Engineering. 2019 May;3:59-81.

    Fatahilah MF, Yu F, Strempel K, Römer F, Maradan D, Meneghini M et al. Top-down GaN nanowire transistors with nearly zero gate hysteresis for parallel vertical electronics. Scientific reports. 2019 Dec 1;9(1). 10301.

    Hampel B, Tollkuhn M, Elenskiy I, Martens M, Kajevic D, Schilling M. Josephson cantilevers for THz microscopy of additive manufactured diffractive optical components. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 2019 Jan 30;29(5). 8630090.

    Wasisto HS, Prades JD, Gülink J, Waag A. Beyond solid-state lighting: Miniaturization, hybrid integration, and applications of GaN nano-and micro-LEDs. Applied physics reviews. 2019 Dec 1;6(4). Y.

TG Members

  • Involved Members and their Relevant Expertise
    Members Institution Relevant Expertise
    Hans Werner Schumacher, Leader PTB Macroscopic Quantum Standards; Precision current metrology of single electron pumps; NV-centre-based magnetometry
    Thomas Gerster PTB Macroscopic Quantum Standards
    Patrik Recher TUBS Theory of Emergent Correlated Quantum Matter; Josephson Junctions; Twisted Bilayer Graphene; Twisted-bilayer-graphene physics in ultracold atoms in optical potentials
    Peter Silvestrov TUBS Twisted Bilayer Graphene
    Rolf Haug LUH Two-dimensional materials, Electrical Quantum Effects, Magnetic Quantum Effects
    Michael Oestreich LUH Spin and charge dynamics of single carriers in single semiconductor quantum dots
    Lina Bockhorn LUH Electrical Quantum Effects
    N.N. LUH Two-Dimensional Materials
    Meinhard Schilling TUBS Electronic Quantum Metrology; Optical Voltage Standard - Fast Prototyping and HTS Superconductors
    Marco Tollkühn TUBS Optical Voltage Standard - HTS Superconductors
    Ilya Elenskiy TUBS Optical Voltage Standard – Fast Prototyping
    Hansjörg Scherer PTB Anomolous Quantum Hall Effect with Topological Materials
    Frank Hohls PTB Low-Dimensional Electron Systems
    Claus Lämmerzahl ZARM Quantum Sensors in Free Fall; Relativistic Geodesy; Quantum Objects in Gravity
    Franziska Weickert PTB NMR, magnetic measurements, quantum magnetism