Quantum Electrical Standards

Develop novel and improved quantum electrical standards for electrical current, electrical resistance, and voltage.

Contributions to QuantumFrontiers

  • Support collaboration on new materials for standards (e.g. Graphene), measurement techniques and capabilities (i.e. nanomagnetism measurements to study topology or quantum calibrated AFM).
  • Development and optimization of semiconductor based single electron pumps for quantized current generation.
  • Studies of single electron transport and transport statistics using single electron detectors. Studies of single electron quantum optics in semiconductor systems and theory of mesoscopic and single electron transport.
  • Development of electrical precision measurement setups for the traceable measurement of ultra low currents and resistance quantization with ultimately low uncertainty.
  • Development of high temperature superconductor circuits for high frequency Josephson devices.
  • Utilize the improved uncertainties to validate the foundations of electrical quantum metrology by realizing the most precise measurement to date of the quantum metrology triangle.

Collaborative Innovations

  • Theory development for single electron quantum optics of single electron quantum optics (e.g.: Hong Ou Mandel) experiments (Recher  TUBS, Schumacher, Hohls PTB)
  • Joint characterization of twisted layer graphene stacks by transport and optics (Recher TUBS, Schumacher PTB)
  • Joint characterization of GaN two-dimensional electron gases for quantum metrology (Recher TUBS, Schumacher PTB)

Scientific Output

  • Publications
    Bockhorn L, Schuh D, Reichl C, Wegscheider W, Haug RJ. Influence of the electron density on the giant negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional electron gases. Physical Review B. 2024 May 13;109(20):205416. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.109.205416
    Dani O, Hussein R, Bayer JC, Pierz K, Kohler S, Haug RJ. Direct measurement of spin-flip rates of a self-assembled InAs double quantum dot in single-electron tunneling. Physical Review B. 2024 Mar 15;109(12):L121404. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2310.11259, 10.1103/PhysRevB.109.L121404
    Chatterjee A, Kruskopf M, Götz M, Yin Y, Pesel E, Gournay P et al. Performance and Stability Assessment of Graphene-Based Quantum Hall Devices for Resistance Metrology. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 2023;72:1-6. 1502206. doi: 10.1109/tim.2023.3280523
    Pavlovska E, Silvestrov PG, Recher P, Barinovs G, Kashcheyevs V. Collision of two interacting electrons on a mesoscopic beam splitter: Exact solution in the classical limit. Physical Review B. 2023 Apr 7;107(16):165304. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.107.165304
    Ritter PJ, Stapelfeldt FN, Tollkühn M, Hanisch D, Pröpper M, Schilling M et al. Antenna Designs for Efficient Coupling to Josephson Junctions for THz Microscopy. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 2023 Aug;33(5):1800705. Epub 2023 Feb 28. doi: 10.1109/tasc.2023.3249132
    Ubbelohde N, Freise L, Pavlovska E, Silvestrov PG, Recher P, Kokainis M et al. Two electrons interacting at a mesoscopic beam splitter. Nature nanotechnology. 2023 Jul;18(7):733-740. Epub 2023 May 11. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2210.03632, 10.1038/s41565-023-01370-x
    Dani O, Hussein R, Bayer JC, Kohler S, Haug RJ. Temperature-dependent broadening of coherent current peaks in InAs double quantum dots. Communications Physics. 2022 Nov 18;5(1):292. doi: 10.1038/s42005-022-01074-z
    Frombach D, Recher P. Tunable effective length of fractional Josephson junctions. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter. 2022 Feb 23;34(16):164005. doi: 10.1088/1361-648X/ac4dbc
    Hohls F, Kashcheyevs V, Stein F, Wenz T, Kaestner B, Schumacher HW. Controlling the error mechanism in a tunable-barrier nonadiabatic charge pump by dynamic gate compensation. Physical Review B. 2022 May 20;105(20):205425. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.205425
    Tollkühn M, Ritter PJ, Schilling M, Hampel B. THz microscope for three-dimensional imaging with superconducting Josephson junctions. Review of scientific instruments. 2022 Apr 20;93(4):043708. doi: 10.1063/5.0084207
    Yin Y, Chatterjee A, Momeni D, Kruskopf M, Götz M, Wundrack S et al. Tailoring Permanent Charge Carrier Densities in Epitaxial Graphene on SiC by Functionalization with F4‐TCNQ. Advanced Physics Research. 2022 Oct 1;1(1):2200015. doi: 10.1002/apxr.202200015
    Brange F, Schmidt A, Bayer JC, Wagner T, Flindt C, Haug RJ. Controlled emission time statistics of a dynamic single-electron transistor. Science advances. 2021 Jan 6;7(2):eabe0793. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abe0793
    Buonacorsi B, Sfigakis F, Shetty A, Tam MC, Kim HS, Harrigan SR et al. Non-adiabatic single-electron pumps in a dopant-free GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG. Applied physics letters. 2021 Sept 13;119(11):114001. doi: 10.1063/5.0062486
    Reifert D, Kokainis M, Ambainis A, Kashcheyevs V, Ubbelohde N. A random-walk benchmark for single-electron circuits. Nature Communications. 2021 Jan 12;12(1):285. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-20554-w
    Sakar B, Liu Y, Sievers S, Neu V, Lang J, Osterkamp C et al. Quantum calibrated magnetic force microscopy. Physical Review B. 2021 Dec 1;104(21):214427. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.104.214427
    Sinterhauf A, Traeger GA, Momeni D, Pierz K, Schumacher HW, Wenderoth M. Unraveling the origin of local variations in the step resistance of epitaxial graphene on SiC: a quantitative scanning tunneling potentiometry study. CARBON. 2021 Oct 30;184:463-469. Epub 2021 Aug 20. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2021.08.050
    Wundrack S, Momeni D, Dempwolf W, Schmidt N, Pierz K, Michaliszyn L et al. Liquid metal intercalation of epitaxial graphene: Large-area gallenene layer fabrication through gallium self-propagation at ambient conditions. Physical Review Materials. 2021 Feb;5(2):024006. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.5.024006
    De Beule C, Dominguez F, Recher P. Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations in Minimally Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Physical review letters. 2020 Aug 28;125(9):096402. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.096402
    De Beule C, Silvestrov PG, Liu MH, Recher P. Valley splitter and transverse valley focusing in twisted bilayer graphene. Physical Review Research. 2020 Oct 28;2(4):043151. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.043151
    Freise L, Gerster T, Reifert D, Weimann T, Pierz K, Hohls F et al. Trapping and Counting Ballistic Nonequilibrium Electrons. Physical review letters. 2020 Mar 27;124(12):127701. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.127701
    Frombach D, Recher P. Quasiparticle poisoning effects on the dynamics of topological Josephson junctions. Physical Review B. 2020 Mar 17;101(11):115304. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.115304
    Hussein R, Kohler S, Bayer JC, Wagner T, Haug RJ. Spectral Properties of Stochastic Resonance in Quantum Transport. Physical review letters. 2020 Nov 10;125(20):206801. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.2006.13773, 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.206801
    Momeni Pakdehi D, Schädlich P, Nguyen TTN, Zakharov AA, Wundrack S, Najafidehaghani E et al. Silicon Carbide Stacking-Order-Induced Doping Variation in Epitaxial Graphene. Advanced functional materials. 2020 Nov 4;30(45):2004695. doi: 10.1002/adfm.202004695
    Novik EG, Trauzettel B, Recher P. Transport signatures of a junction between a quantum spin Hall system and a chiral topological superconductor. Physical Review B. 2020 Jun 15;101(23):235308. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.235308
    Yang J, Nawrath C, Keil R, Joos R, Zhang X, Höfer B et al. Quantum dot-based broadband optical antenna for efficient extraction of single photons in the telecom O-band. Optics express. 2020 Jun 22;28(13):19457-19468. Epub 2020 Jun 17. doi: 10.1364/OE.395367
    Beck M, Abrosimov NV, Hübner J, Oestreich M. Impact of optically induced carriers on the spin relaxation of localized electron spins in isotopically enriched silicon. Physical Review B. 2019 Jun 3;99(24):245201. doi: 10.1103/physrevb.99.245201
    Elenskiy I, Tollkuhn M, Kajevic D, Martens M, Hampel B, Schilling M. Fabrication and Properties of Josephson Junction Cantilevers for Terahertz Applications. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 2019 Aug;29(5):8644010. doi: 10.1109/tasc.2019.2900217
    Fatahilah MF, Strempel K, Yu F, Vodapally S, Waag A, Wasisto HS. 3D GaN nanoarchitecture for field-effect transistors. Micro and Nano Engineering. 2019 May;3:59-81. doi: 10.1016/j.mne.2019.04.001
    Fatahilah MF, Yu F, Strempel K, Römer F, Maradan D, Meneghini M et al. Top-down GaN nanowire transistors with nearly zero gate hysteresis for parallel vertical electronics. Scientific reports. 2019 Dec 1;9(1):10301. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46186-9
    Hampel B, Tollkuhn M, Elenskiy I, Martens M, Kajevic D, Schilling M. Josephson cantilevers for THz microscopy of additive manufactured diffractive optical components. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 2019 Jan 30;29(5):8630090. doi: 10.1109/tasc.2019.2896153
    Wasisto HS, Prades JD, Gülink J, Waag A. Beyond solid-state lighting: Miniaturization, hybrid integration, and applications of GaN nano-and micro-LEDs. Applied physics reviews. 2019 Dec;6(4). doi: 10.1063/1.5096322

TG Members

  • Involved Members and their Relevant Expertise
    Members Institution Relevant Expertise
    Hans Werner Schumacher, Leader PTB Macroscopic Quantum Standards; Precision current metrology of single electron pumps; NV-centre-based magnetometry
    Thomas Gerster PTB Macroscopic Quantum Standards
    Patrik Recher TUBS Theory of Emergent Correlated Quantum Matter; Josephson Junctions; Twisted Bilayer Graphene; Twisted-bilayer-graphene physics in ultracold atoms in optical potentials
    Peter Silvestrov TUBS Twisted Bilayer Graphene
    Rolf Haug LUH Two-dimensional materials, Electrical Quantum Effects, Magnetic Quantum Effects
    Michael Oestreich LUH Spin and charge dynamics of single carriers in single semiconductor quantum dots
    Lina Bockhorn LUH Electrical Quantum Effects
    N.N. LUH Two-Dimensional Materials
    Meinhard Schilling TUBS Electronic Quantum Metrology; Optical Voltage Standard - Fast Prototyping and HTS Superconductors
    Marco Tollkühn TUBS Optical Voltage Standard - HTS Superconductors
    Ilya Elenskiy TUBS Optical Voltage Standard – Fast Prototyping
    Hansjörg Scherer PTB Anomolous Quantum Hall Effect with Topological Materials
    Frank Hohls PTB Low-Dimensional Electron Systems
    Claus Lämmerzahl ZARM Quantum Sensors in Free Fall; Relativistic Geodesy; Quantum Objects in Gravity
    Franziska Weickert PTB NMR, magnetic measurements, quantum magnetism
    Teresa Tschirner PTB  
    Dustin Wittbrodt PTB  
    Johannes Bayer PTB  
    Mark Bieler PTB Voltage and current metrology with superconducting quantum circuits, Josephson parametric amplifiers for the readout of microwave signals at the quantum limit
    Ricarda Reuter PTB Scanning NV-Nanomagnetomety
    Jantje Kalin PTB Quantum feedback of nanomagnetic measurements
    Zhaowen Lui PTB Quantum standard for the Tesla based on hyperpolarized He3